Senin, 13 Mei 2013

Bahasa Inggris 2: Coordinate Conjunction In Compound Sentence


MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS 2
Coordinate Conjunction In Compound Sentence











Di Susun Oleh:
1.                                     Hilmi Ridha Aldiansyah     (13212488)
2.                                     Nico Prasetiawan              (15212307)           
3.                                     Rahmawati                        (15212950)           
4.                                     Rai Lazuardi A.              (15212952)
5.                                     Risnandar                          (16212478)


UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA





KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kami panjatkan kehadirat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa yang telah memberikan rahmat serta karunia-Nya kepada kami sehingga kami dapat menyelesaikan Makalah ini yang berjudul “Coordinate Conjunction In Compound Sentence” . Dapat Terselesaikannya  penyusunan makalah ini berkat bantuan dari berbagai pihak, dalam hal ini kelompok kami sampaikan terima kasih kepada yang terhormat Dosen mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris yang telah memberikan tugas, petunjuk, kepada kami sehingga kami termotivasi dan menyelesaikan tugas ini. Secara khusus kami menyampaikan terima kasih kepada teman-teman tercinta yang telah memberikan dorongan dan bantuan serta pengertian yang besar kepada penulis, baik selama mengikuti perkuliahan maupun dalam menyelesaikan makalah ini.
Diharapkan makalah ini dapat memberikan informasi kepada kita semua tentang Coordinate  Conjunction In Compound Sentence. Menyadari bahwa karya manusia  terdapat berbagai kesalahan dan kekurangan, oleh karena itu kritik dan saran dari semua pihak yang bersifat membangun selalu kami harapkan demi kesempurnaan makalah ini.
Akhir kata, kami sampaikan terima kasih kepada semua pihak yang telah berperan serta dalam penyusunan makalah ini dari awal sampai akhir.




Depok, 30 Maret 2013




BAB I
PENDAHULUAN
A. Latar Belakang
Kemajuan Ilmu pengetahuan belakangan terus mengalami kemajuan yang amat  pesat, oleh karenanya kita perlu untuk mengikuti perkembangan Ilmu  pengetahuan tidak hanya dalam negeri, begitupun progress yang ditunjukan di kancah global. Oleh karenanya bahasa menjadi factor nomor wahid yang dapat menunjang kemampuan kitadalam menyerap ilmu yang berkembang secara cepat itu, karena begitu banyak literature yang berbahasa inggris. Maka bahasa Inggris ini merupakan bahasa fundamental yang membawa kita ke panggun dunia Ilmu pengetahuan internasional.
Bahasa pada umumnya memiliki kaidah-kaidah  atau istilah tata bahasanya masing-masing, begitupun dengan bahasa Inggris, banyak sekali kaidah-kaidah yang harus diperhatikan dalam penggunaannya, terutama dalam bidang writingnya. Mengingat pentingnya, kami mencoba menyajikan empat kaidah dari sekian banyak kaidah bahasa Inggris, selain untuk memenuhi tugas kuliah juga bertujuan semoga tulisan sesingkat ini dapat menambah wawasan kita tentang bahasa Inggris.
B. Identifikasi Masalah
Dalam tulisan ini kami simpulkan beberapa yang akan kami bahas, yaitu:
1. Apa yang dimaksud Coordinate Conjunction In Compound Sentence, rumus serta bagaimana contohnya?
2. Bagaimana pengertian Coordinate Conjunction In Compound Sentence, seperti apa rumusnya, pembagiannya serta contohnya?
3. Ada berapa jenis dan Apa saja jenis Coordinate Conjunction In Compound Sentence ?



C. Tujuan
Dari identifikasi masalah di atas, maka kami tentunya bertujuan untuk menjelaskan atau memaparkan point-point tersebut, sesuai dengan pengetahuan yang kami peroleh, baik dari buku sumber maupun dari web-web tertentu. Semoga semuanya memberikan manfaat bagi kita. Bila ada kesalahan tulisan atau kata-kata di dalam makalah ini, penulis mohon maaf yang sebesar-besarnya.






















BAB II
PEMBAHASAN
A.     Pengertian Coordinate Conjunction
Coordinate conjunction adalah kata hubung yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua konstruksi gramatikal yang sama yaitu: kata, phrase (frasa), atau clause (klausa). Elemen yang dihubungkan tersebut biasanya bersifat paralel (kedudukannya sejajar) secara struktur gramatikal. Conjuctions ini digunakan untuk menggabungkan kata dengan kata yang lain, menggabungkan phrase dengan phrase yang lain, atau kalimat dengan kalimat yang lain. Yang dihubungkan oleh conjunction tipe ini harus merupakan element kalimat yang sama, misalnya: subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence.       
B.     Punctuation (Tanda Baca) pada Coordinate Conjunction
Jika coordinate conjunction digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua independent clause di dalam suatu compound sentence, maka tanda baca koma ditempatkan tepat sebelum kata hubung tersebut.

The sentence Formulas


  • Compound Sentence   =   Simple Sentence + ; +Simple Sentence
  • Compound Sentence   =   Simple Sentence +, +coordinating conjunction +   Simple Sentence



Contoh Punctuation pada Coordinate Conjunction:
I love running and swimming. (antar verb)
Rita and I arrived this morning, and we just left 10 minutes ago.
(antar independent clause)

C.     Jenis-jenis Coordinating Conjunction
Ada 7 coordinating conjunctions yaitu: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Untuk mempermudah mengingatnya coba gunakan akronim ini: FANBOYS; F untuk for, A untuk and, N untuk nor, dan seterusnya.
Coordinate Conjunction
Hubungan
Contoh Kalimat Coordinate Conjunction
For
(karena)
Cause & Effect
(sebab & akibat)
He didn’t come last night, for he fell asleep.
Mr. Adam is respected for researching issues and seeking practical solutions.
We had to go to the grocery store, for some milk and bread.
And
(dan)
Addition
(penambahan)
The trainees laughed and cried simultaneously.
Vina and Amel wake up at 5:00
I am, and they go to school at 6:30 am.
Nor
(tidak)
Addition
(penambahan)
She didn’t come to the ceremony, nor did her friends.
People in Shizuoka do not have to travel as far to work, nor do they have to put up with extremely overcrowded trains.
Neither Joe nor John has any idea what he’s talking about.
But
(tapi, namun)
Contrast
(pertentangan)
The man helped in sincerity, but many people thought negatively about him.
It’s an old car, but it’s very reliable.
I don’t care for the beach, but I enjoy a good vacation in the mountains.
Or
(atau)
Alternative
(pilihan)
What do you prefer to stay at home or go to the cinema on this weekend?
It can be black, white or grey.
The gold is hidden at the beach or by the lakeside.

Yet
(tapi, namun)
Contrast
(pertentangan)
The book is thick, yet the text is large.
I didn’t study, yet I passed the exam.
You see yet do not hear.
So
(agar, sehingga)
Result
(hasil, akibat)
Please reconsider, so you will not regret oneday.
He was tired, so he went to bed.
Frank didn’t have enough money to buy an airplane ticket, so he couldn’t fly home.

Note:
• Gunakan koma sebelum conjunction jika conjunction tersebut menggabungkan dua kalimat. Koma juga digunakan jika conjunctions menggabungkan lebih dari 2 kata atau phrase. Contoh: We studied math, physics, and chemistry last semester.
• For juga berfungsi sebagai preposition. Sebagai preposisiton, for diikuti oleh noun. Contoh: I am waiting for a cab. (i.e. cab = taxi)
• Yet juga berfungsi sebagai adverb. Contoh: I haven’t finished reading this article yet. Lihat penggunaan adverb yet pada pembahasan tentang present perfect tense.
• So = as jika diikuti oleh adjective/adverb. Lihat penggunaannya pada pembahasan tentang comparisons.

Contoh Penggunaan Coordinating Conjunction pada Sebuah Artikel
USA 2008: The Great Depression
Food stamps are the symbol of poverty in the US. In the era of the credit crunch, a record 28 million Americans are now relying on them to survive – a sure sign the world's richest country faces economic crisis
BY DAVID USBORNE IN NEW YORK
We knew things were bad on Wall Street, but on Main Street it may be worse. Startling official statistics show that as a new economic recession stalks the United States, a record number of Americans will shortly be depending on food stamps just to feed themselves and their families.

Dismal projections by the Congressional Budget Office in Washington suggest that in the fiscal year starting in October, 28 million people in the US will be using government food stamps to buy essential groceries, the highest level since the food assistance programme was introduced in the 1960s.

The increase – from 26.5 million in 2007 – is due partly to recent efforts to increase public awareness of the programme and also a switch from paper coupons to electronic debit cards. But above all it is the pressures being exerted on ordinary Americans by an economy that is suddenly beset by troubles. Housing foreclosures, accelerating jobs losses and fast-rising prices all add to the squeeze.

Emblematic of the downturn until now has been the parades of houses seized in foreclosure all across the country, and myriad families separated from their homes. But now the crisis is starting to hit the country in its gut. Getting food on the table is a challenge many Americans are finding harder to meet. As a barometer of the country's economic health, food stamp usage may not be perfect, but can certainly tell a story.

Michigan has been in its own mini-recession for years as its collapsing industrial base, particularly in the car industry, has cast more and more out of work. Now, one in eight residents of the state is on food stamps, double the level in 2000. "We have seen a dramatic increase in recent years, but we have also seen it climbing more in recent months," Maureen Sorbet, a spokeswoman for Michigan's programme, said. "It's been increasing steadily. Without the programme, some families and kids would be going without."

But the trend is not restricted to the rust-belt regions. Forty states are reporting increases in applications for the stamps, actually electronic cards that are filled automatically once a month by the government and are swiped by shoppers at the till, in the 12 months from December 2006. At least six states, including Florida, Arizona and Maryland, have had a 10 per cent increase in the past year.

In Rhode Island, the segment of the population on food stamps has risen by 18 per cent in two years. The food programme started 40 years ago when hunger was still a daily fact of life for many Americans. The recent switch from paper coupons to the plastic card system has helped remove some of the stigma associated with the food stamp programme. The card can be swiped as easily as a bank debit card. To qualify for the cards, Americans do not have to be exactly on the breadline. The programme is available to people whose earnings are just above the official poverty line. For Hubert Liepnieks, the card is a lifeline he could never afford to lose. Just out of prison, he sleeps in overnight shelters in Manhattan and uses the card at a Morgan Williams supermarket on East 23rd Street. Yesterday, he and his fiancée, Christine Schultz, who is in a wheelchair, shared one banana and a cup of coffee bought with the 82 cents left on it.

"They should be refilling it in the next three or four days," Liepnieks says. At times, he admits, he and friends bargain with owners of the smaller grocery shops to trade the value of their cards for cash, although it is illegal. "It can be done. I get $7 back on $10."

Richard Enright, the manager at this Morgan Williams, says the numbers of customers on food stamps has been steady but he expects that to rise soon. "In this location, it's still mostly old people and people who have retired from city jobs on stamps," he says. Food stamp money was designed to supplement what people could buy rather than covering all the costs of a family's groceries. But the problem now, Mr Enright says, is that soaring prices are squeezing the value of the benefits.

"Last St Patrick's Day, we were selling Irish soda bread for $1.99. This year it was $2.99. Prices are just spiralling up, because of the cost of gas trucking the food into the city and because of commodity prices. People complain, but I tell them it's not my fault everything is more expensive."

The US Department of Agriculture says the cost of feeding a low-income family of four has risen 6 per cent in 12 months. "The amount of food stamps per household hasn't gone up with the food costs," says Dayna Ballantyne, who runs a food bank in Des Moines, Iowa. "Our clients are finding they aren't able to purchase food like they used to."

And the next monthly job numbers, to be released this Friday, are likely to show 50,000 more jobs were lost nationwide in March, and the unemployment rate is up to perhaps 5 per cent.




















BAB III
PENUTUP
A.   Kesimpulan
Dari Makalah tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa Conjunctions adalah kata sambung/konjungsi yang menghubungkan bagian-bagian ujaran dalam kalimat: kata dengan kata, frase dengan frase, atau klausa dengan klausa yang mempunyai kedudukan setara atau sejenis. Kata-kata yang setara ini bisa berupa hubungan antara noun dengan noun, adverb dengan adverb, adjective denganadjective, verb dengan verb, juga phrase dengan phrase, dan clause dengan clause. Coordinating conjunctions digunakan untuk menggabungkan kata dengan kata yang lain, menggabungkan phrase dengan phrase yang lain, atau kalimat dengan kalimat yang lain. Yang dihubungkan oleh conjunction tipe ini harus merupakan element kalimat yang sama, misalnya: subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence.
B.   Daftar Pustaka

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